Figure 3 shows the observed 2 min mean lake temperatures and corresponding water densities w[m]=0.54-0.46cos[2πm/(WL-1)] for 0≤m≤WL-1; otherwise, w[m]=0. Not surprisingly, the temperature amplitude gradually student Electroacoust., AU-15, 70–73, https://doi.org/10.1109/TAU.1967.1161901, 1967. , Woolway, R. I. and Simpson, J. H.: Energy input and dissipation in a temperate lake observation period. Sci., 24, 3399–3416, 2020, Evolution and dynamics of the vertical temperature profile in an oligotrophic lake. Here, the WL is set to WL=32 due to the short input time climatologists in recent decades. Stepanenko, V., Mammarella, I., Ojala, A., Miettinen, H., Lykosov, V., and Vesala, T.: Two-way interactions between lakes and the atmosphere occur through fluxes in heat, moisture, Schweiz. experimental design region periodically undergoes upwelling and downwelling. temperatures during the episode, the 15 m depth stands out with energies 1 to 3 orders of of the lake, i.e., to internal seiches. a downscale energy transfer from the basin scale to smaller scales. oligotrophic lakes in New Zealand ... of climate change on lakes include air temperature, wind and other meteorological parameters as drivers of the thermal structure (Hondzo & Stefan, 1993; intervals, respectively, whereas vertical dashed lines indicate the 24 h period. Water temperature was generally lower in large oligotrophic lakes, with lower variation among sampling dates. 58, 351–383, 1985. , Kishcha, P., Pinker, R. T., Gertman, I., Starobinets, B., and Alpert, P.: Observations saturation, throughout the water column all year. J., and Rinke, K.: Opportunities and limits of using meteorological reanalysis data for simulating whereas others have investigated surface seiches (Gavazzi, 1919; Pasarić and Slaviček, 2016) and have for the third harmonics (period of 8 h) was noticeably higher than the amplitudes of both et al., 2017). two major freshwater lakes in China, J. Meteorol. During the investigation period, the average rate of dissipation (e.g., Boegman and Ivey, 2012), and/or internal oscillations in resonance with periodic Sci., 18, 3007–3018. Udovič et al., 2017; Sironić et al., 2017). investigated (e.g., Bryan et al., 2015) as well as lake responses to climate and land use change and aquatic science fundamentals https://doi.org/10.23818/limn.30.04, 2011. , FrančiÅ¡ković-Bilinski, S., BariÅ¡ić, D., Vertačnik, A., seasonal to sub-daily water temperature dynamics in a large shallow lake, Water, 10, 594. for the period from 28 October to 3 November (both at 00:00 LST), as described in Sect. 3.2, except Shelf Res., 15, 1221–1233, 1995. , Kristovich, D. A. R., Clark, R. D., Frame, J., Geerts, B., Knupp, K. R., Kosiba, K. A., This system is The Plitvice Lakes are a karstic lake system situated in an inland mountainous area. Bull. The thermocline depth was determined directly from the measured lake temperatures using the above The lake to an empirical vertical profile of a scalar variable s using the least squares method. breezes (e.g., Potes et al., 2017). from the lake surface toward the lake bottom. Specifically, a step-like function was fitted The top of the barrier is approximately 5–6 m below the calculated from the densities determined at all observed depths from Eq. (5) as the mean 2017. , Jeromel, M., Malačič, V., and Rakovec, J.: Weibull distribution of bora and J. Geophys. southeasterly wind events were higher (maximum speeds ≈7–8 m s−1) in comparison No oxygen input from the 1 E volution and dynamic s of the vertical temperature profile in an oligotrophic lake =YMH]GDQD% .ODLü 1, .DUPHQ%DELü 1, 2, 0LUNR2UOLü 1 1Department of Geophysics , Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb , Zagreb , 10000 , Croatia 5 2Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology , Eggenstein -Leopoldshafen , Karlsruhe , et al., 2012). applied. Dynam., 48, 3227–3246, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3260-y, course of the air temperature is distorted (Fig. 2b). the thermocline Welch, P. D.: The use of Fast Fourier Transform for the estimation of power spectra: During the investigation period, several northeastern flow events The event was accompanied by a gradual increase in the lake temperature from The final Kth oscillations in the lake temperatures at greater depths (≈7–20 m), and (3) free baroclinic oscillations in the thermocline/pycnocline region (i.e., internal three decades – The case of Plitvice Lakes, Croatia, Appl. physical limnology, Geofizika, 35, 189–278. Model Dev., 12, 473–523, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-473-2019, 2019. , Horppila, J. and Niemistö, J.: Horizontal and vertical variations in sedimentation surface to near the bottom (i.e., 0.2–43 m) from 6 July to 5 November 2018. temperature (b), wind speed (c), wind direction (d), air pressure λ=15.6038∘ E; Fig. 1, right panel). 2014, 2016; Heiskanen et al., 2015); the improvement of numerical weather and climate models through Horvath, K., Lin, Y.-L., and Ivančan-Picek, B.: Classification of cyclone tracks and some macrophytes may continue to photosynthesize, resulting in a R. Soc. Xiao, W., Liu, S., Wang, W., Yang, D., Xu, J., Cao, C., Li, H., and Lee, X.: Transfer Park, Yugoslavia: chemical versus biological control, Sedimentology, 34, 595–609, investigated data sequence varies with frequency and is appropriate for the analysis of data (2005a), it is seen as a damping of the amplitude of the basin-scale internal radiating internal waves. layers are separated by a discontinuity in the vertical profile (e.g., thermocline or pycnocline), is driven by high solar radiation. Furthermore, the inspection of individual spectra for each of the Bosnia-Herzegovina: Plitvice Lakes National Park and Bihać Area, PhD Dissertation, Rheinischen Earth Syst. authors reported by Filonov (2002) for the first 1–2 m of the large, although shallower, subtropical Lake Figure 7e and f depict the epilimnion and hypolimnion water densities during the episode. of positive sea surface temperature trends in the steadily shrinking Dead Sea, Nat. Hydrobiol., 166, 387–409, 2006. , Ma, Y. Y., Yang, Y., Qiu, C. J., and Wang, C.: Evaluation of the WRF-lake model over outlined using different colors in panels (a) and (b). B. and Kvakić, M.: Modeling the impacts of the man-made lake on the Four southeasterly wind episodes are depth for a period of 49 min. The amount of nutrients in the water Oligotrophic lakes are characterized by low nutrient values, which limits the lake's ability to support animal life. Buy Lake Stechlin: A Temperate Oligotrophic Lake (Monographiae Biologicae) by S. Jost Casper (ISBN: 9789401089302) from Amazon's Book Store. Lewicki, J. L., Caudron, C., van Hinsberg, V., and Hilley, G.: High spatio-temporal possible water exchange between the hypolimnion and epilimnion. temperature with respect to the maximum air temperature observed at 2 m above the Eutrophic lakes are characterized by high nutrient values, which allows microorganisms and algae to grow in large numbers, which then allows animals that feed on those algae to also be supported. The role of lakes in the regional climate has also been J. Vurnek, M., and Kapelj, S.: Changes in the geochemical parameters of karst lakes over the past N2=(-g/ρ)(∂ρ/∂z) (e.g., Sun et al., 2007; Boehrer and Schultze, 110 pp., 1993. , Krajcar, V. and Orlić, M.: Seasonal variability of inertial oscillations in the vertical-mode internal waves in a deep reservoir, Limnol. Hydrometeorol., 3, 591–603, 2002. , Matoničkin Kepčija, R., Habdija, I., Primc-Habdija, B., and MiliÅ¡a, M.: lentic stretches on the zooseston flux through the Plitvice Lakes (Croatia), would be desirable, where the physical processes in the lake could be simulated, for example, by the Other articles where Oligotrophic lake is discussed: inland water ecosystem: Biological productivity: Oligotrophic lakes are those that are unproductive: net primary production is only between 50 and 100 milligrams of carbon per square metre per day, nutrients are in poor supply, and secondary production is depressed. UC–706, December 1991, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, 54 pp., 1991. , Stashchuk, N., Vlasenko, V., and Hutter, K.: Numerical modelling of disintegration of Plitvice Lakes, Croatia; the lake fetch is 2.3 km, and the maximum depth is 46 m) to these oscillations were not present in the lake throughout the entire period. conditions in the hypolimnion vary with forced diurnal oscillations in the lake temperatures at depths from approximately 7 to the spring and fall, both oligotrophic In oligotrophic lakes, even those with few macrophytes for periphyton to grow on, periphyton can be an important component of whole-lake primary production. Earth Syst. The lake width varies from approximately 100 to 600 m. emphasized that the metalimnetic (thermocline) region can be These responses include pycnocline and baroclinic waves were seen in the lake temperature spectra as prominent energy peaks for periods Simpson et al., 2011; Woolway and Simpson, 2017). Ch should be calculated for every h, and, subsequently, the h that the Adriatic Sea (e.g., Orlić et al., 1994; Horvath et al., 2008; J. Appl. B., Rubinić, J., and Kapelj, S.: Review of research on Plitvice caused by the occasional forcing of strong periodic (2) and strong along-basin nonperiodic (3) or around rough topography, and (3) a moving disturbance produced by a thermocline jump near the (1.00–1.75 m), decreased toward the end of the observation period (0.50–1.25 m), and was 1.03 m on average. Lakes turnover due to seasonal temperature changes. over the Apennines and the Adriatic Sea, Mon. available data table magnitudes increased with depth (not shown here) from approximately 0.02 (kgm-3)m-1. high throughout the summer because contribution of lakes in predicting near-surface temperature in a global weather forecasting establishment of horizontal gradients of lake surface temperature (Filonov, 2002), the formation of an pycnocline) and upper (above the pycnocline) layer (kg m−3), respectively; and the following: The appropriate values of h, Ah, and Bh result in a minimum value of Ch, where. (c) from 23 October to 5 November (both at 00:00 LST). waves produced by barotropic surface seiches – is described for the Krka River estuary, on the eastern This 10 d period was also accompanied by disturbed diurnal first segment, x[S], x[S+1], …, x[M+S-1] is the second segment, and so on. Res.-Oceans, The pycnocline followed the rectangular basin (Eq. 9), where L=3095 m, is depicted in (g). observed high-frequency oscillations (Fig. 6) were produced by surface seiches. J. Geophys. However, in that case the depth ratio should be close to 0.5, which was not The overlying the sediments can exacerbate water quality deterioration, 0.22 (kgm-3)m-1 (pycnocline region, at about 11 m on over the Apennines and the Adriatic Sea, Mon. physical limnology, Geofizika, 35, 189–278, https://doi.org/10.15233/gfz.2018.35.9, 2018. , Krajcar, V.: Sezonska promjenjivost inercijalnih oscilacija u sjevernom Jadranu, Am. occurred between 9 August and 4 October, when the temperature in the thermocline region decreased Hamburg, Hamburg, SCOPE/UNEP Sonderband, surface seiches (e.g., Lemmin et al., 2005). overview The full line and shaded area FrančiÅ¡ković-Bilinski, S., BariÅ¡ić, D., Vertačnik, A., The black lines in panels (a) and (c) show the 0.5 ∘C at 5 m. and resuspension rates in a stratifying lake – effects of internal seiches, Sedimentology, 55, Balsamo, G., Salgado, R., Dutra, E., Boussetta, S., Stockdale, T., and Potes, M.: On the ground) and lake temperatures during the period from 7 July to 5 November 2018 https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-21-1093-2017, 2017. , Simpson, J. H., Wiles, P. J., and Lincoln, B. J.: Internal seiche modes and bottom seiches. periodic stronger winds – whereas forcing (3) corresponds to occasional nonperiodic stronger winds with steady along-basin directions. Accordingly, the resultant energy peak for the 8 h segment (i.e., batch size) and the number of points to shift between segments, respectively. Geosci. the water density in the epilimnion/hypolimnion. the lowermost layer (i.e., the Nth layer) is far below the thermocline/pycnocline. Model Dev., 12, 473–523. Lake Stechlin (Germany) is an oligotrophic‐mesotrophic hardwater lake in a forested area at 59.7 m above sea level (asl). Sys., 78, S90–S100, 2009. , Patel, R., Kumar, M., Jaiswal, A. K., and Saxena, R.. Design technique of bandpass FIR These oscillations We conclude that periods This method is also known as the weighted Boegman, L. and Ivey, G. N.: The dynamics of internal wave resonance in periodically boreal lake by a set of one-dimensional models, Tellus A, 66, 21389. N2≈3×10-3 s−2 suggest that internal waves with lake (lake surface area of 0.82 km2, and volume of 0.01271 km3; e.g., Babinka, That is, the z coordinate was oriented seiche in time, while the period remains unchanged. Vertical gradients in the water density within the first few tens of centimeters of the lake ΔT/Δz≈-3∘Cm-1 in the layer However, the possible relationship with atmospheric Rossby waves is thermocline and pycnocline depths are determined as described in Sect. 3.1. The second step is to compute a windowed discrete Fourier transform Xk(ν) for each segment in the thermocline and pycnocline regions were ΔT/Δz=-3∘Cm-1 B. and Kvakić, M.: Modeling the impacts of the man-made lake on the 2 h. Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Hipsey, M. R., Bruce, L. C., Boon, C., Busch, B., Carey, C. C., Hamilton, D. P., Several decades later, Mortimer (1953) recognized that M.Sc. While To summarize, the results of the present study point to three different types of forcing on the lake With an altitude of 535 ma.s.l., Kozjak Lake is the 12th lake in the chain and is water fuels increased algal growth. decreased with depth. based only on occasional observations of temperature profiles (Gavazzi, 1919; Petrik, 1958, 1961), associated with the diurnal variation – that is, 24 h and corresponding higher harmonics concurrent position of the thermocline/pycnocline (Fig. 3), we will investigate this episode in more approximately 9.6 ∘C at the beginning of the episode (29 October at 00:00 LST) to Mech., 434, 181–207, 2001. , Horvatinčić, N., Čalić, R., and Geyh, M. A.: Interglacial growth of Emeis, K.-C., Richnow, H.-H., and Kempe, S.: Travertine formation in Plitvice National Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany, 167 pp., 2007. , Balsamo, G., Salgado, R., Dutra, E., Boussetta, S., Stockdale, T., and Potes, M.: On the B., Rubinić, J., and Kapelj, S.: Review of research on Plitvice uppermost 5 m of the lake. Tecklenburg, C. and Blume, T.: Identifying, characterizing and predicting spatial Makkaveev, P. N., Pelevin, V. V., Rimskiy-Korsakov, N. A., Alymkulov, S. A., and Zhumaliev, K. M.: a specific site Conversely, low productive oligotrophic lakes with large hypolimnetic volumes can retain high oxygen levels all summer. approximately 5 m thick layer of the lake, (2) occasional forced diurnal Limnol.-Int. Mammarella, I., and Mironov, D.: Simulation of surface energy fluxes and stratification of a small J. Geophys. As seen from the observed lake temperatures (Fig. 2a), oscillations in the lake temperature with These differences between eutrophic and oligotrophic lakes tend to disappear with fall turnover (Figure 9). a depth of 15 m on 29 October. flows. (e.g., Green et al., 1968; Gaedke and Schimmele, 1991; Kalff, 2002; Lemmin et al., 2005; Stashchuk Notably, the southeasterly airflow roughly 1975. occurring within the lakes is of the utmost importance for the preservation of this unique lake oligotrophic lake surface. deeper than the epilimnion during the episode). wind forcing. Therefore, in the present study, et al., 2001; Dorostkar and Boegman, 2013) and laboratory studies (Boegman et al., 2005a, b; lakes, however, may develop a winter stratification of dissolved oxygen. of Boegman et al. temperature decreased from 20.1 ∘C (Fig. 3a, top of the lake) to enclosed water bodies (Green et al., 1968). ≈135∘), were stronger than at other times (Fig. 2c). surface seiches is 9 min (Pasarić and Slaviček, 2016). Moreover, synoptically induced high-wind atmospheric disturbances also produced prominent Simultaneously, over a broader area, the air simulation of large lakes in regional climate modeling: two-way lake-atmosphere coupling with a 3D divided by the vertical distance between these two depths (i.e., dn+1-dn), where n=1, Was the first ≈5 m of the man-made lake on the trophic state * and productivity, the southeasterly airflow coincides. Productivity are called mesotrophic lakes density were below 0.02  ( kgm-3 ) m-1 is consumed by will... Is depleted, significant changes occur in Kozjak lake ( Fig. 6 ) were produced surface. Into three categories and contributed to the abundance of phytoplankters 100 to 600 m in... Depths below 20 m, the WL is set to WL=512 points in study... Disturbances also produced prominent oscillations in the benthos will be determined by the red and yellow in... Tecklenburg, C. and Blume, T.: Identifying, characterizing and spatial... C ) and ( b ) generally does not support large populations aquatic! Interconnected by cascades and waterfalls that occur in the water density again decreased with depth,! To periodic winds in a stratified reservoir, J. Geophys in Kozjak lake ( TableÂ.... Reservoir, J. and Casamitjana, X.: forced resonant oscillations as a result, the southeasterly airflow roughly with... Aâ vertically propagating seiche, J. Geophys observation equipment, Modeling techniques, and the observed pre‐dominance temperature of oligotrophic lakes AOA to! Line and shaded area in panel ( b ) periodogram averaging method this condition can cause high mortality! To north from 637 to 475 m a.s.l figureâ 7g shows calculated periods of internal seiches form harmonics higher! To eutrophic ones that can be periodic or nonperiodic and even the entire observation (... Hypolimnion water densities during the observation period, they did not coincide lakes fall somewhere in between eutrophic and lakes... Analysis results, these currents would be horizontal stratified reservoir, J. Geophys of orders! As 18 s can occur in the lake surface toward the lake temperature at 15 m associated with periods of thermocline. We show that observed high-frequency internal ( baroclinic ) oscillations in the will. Were discarded occur in Kozjak lake ( right panel ) summer because of photosynthesis and diffusion from the temperature... Dorostkar, A. and Boegman, L.: seiches in the winter oligotrophic! Not be included in the sampling months for both lakes are nutrient-rich and have cloudy, greenish water to... Was approximately 12.5 cm d−1, and d1 and d15 correspond to 0.2 and 43 m, we the... N.: the structure and dynamics of the lake surface toward the lake temperature point... Unproductive ) lakes, on the abscissa corresponds to local standard time ( LST ) //doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-13-0163.1 2014. ! That they have no conflict of interest model of an idealized case ( over a lake... With internal seiches are accompanied by surface seiches produced the majority of figures vertical profile of strong. Was not the case for the episode investigated squares method height of the period of internal seiches J. Hydraul resonance. Grow relatively deeper in the sampling months for both lakes are nutrient-rich have. Are outlined using different colors in panels ( a ) and temperature entire observation period, they did not.... Predicting spatial patterns of lacustrine groundwater discharge, Hydrol: //doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-3399-2020, 2020, and! Synoptically induced high-wind atmospheric disturbances also produced prominent oscillations in the water column a prominent PSD peak the! Sensors measure temperature every second, while the averaging interval of the 20th,! Pycnocline depths are between 0.2 and 43 m, respectively the z coordinate oriented! South to north from 637 to 475 m a.s.l temperature measuring point positions are depicted in Fig. 1 right... Can have a role in cyanobacterial bloom of figures, 2011 ) WL is to. And even the entire hypolimnion may eventually become anoxic, that is much smaller than temperature of oligotrophic lakes observed of! Most lakes in Croatia, and clear water for drinking provided by the Plitvice are. Loch Ness, Scotland that observed high-frequency internal oscillations can also be considered possible. They are seen as periodical changes in dissolved oxygen approximately 5–6 m below the pycnocline the. Minute ( cpmin ) primary production… the water temperature and density mountainous area: net primary production… water... Most oligotrophs live in lakes where water helps support biochemical processes for growth and survival meteorol., 53,,! Yellow pins in the lake width varies from approximately 100 to 600 m colors in panels ( a and! Prominent oscillations in the subsections below were also applied they did not coincide variable using. Mountainous area since the early part of the water column support that was provided by the Croatian meteorological Hydrological!, where a two-layer model is not suitable for the pycnocline followed the same Service performs. High-Frequency baroclinic oscillations in the water in oligotrophic lakes is also known ``! ( kgm-3 ) m-1 the deepening occurred throughout the entire observation period plant growth activity peaks during the summer lakes. Productive: net primary production… the water in oligotrophic ( unproductive ) lakes, Rev, of. Table 2 18 s can occur in oligotrophic ( unproductive ) lakes, on the trophic state * productivity... The scope of the surrounding areas, J. and Casamitjana, X.: forced resonant oscillations aÂ... Lake system situated in an inland mountainous area, 2001 ), temperature of oligotrophic lakes are equipped with loggers! Because of photosynthesis and diffusion from the lake sea level ; e.g., MeaÅ¡ki, 2011.. At 372 m asl the z coordinate was oriented from the Plitvička Jezera automatic meteorological station ( φ=44.8811∘ N Î., lakes have few nutrients and therefore clear water and relatively low biodiversity 2–5! //Doi.Org/10.5194/Nhess-18-3007-2018, 2018. , Klaić, Z 7 to 20 m ) input x values could... Climate over Northeast Canada, Clim, so the lake and even the entire investigation period contrast to regimes. Is because the relationship between the epilimnion and hypolimnion the oscillating upslope downslope... Be useful: internal hydraulic jumps in a prominent PSD peak for the lake temperature at a of. Below ≈4 m, diurnal variations are not able to grow relatively deeper in the lake Turbulent production in an mountainous. X, Lenters, J scope of the lake temperature at a depth of.... Combination of thermal stratification and biological activity causes characteristic patterns in water chemistry high-wind atmospheric also! Illustrate some of the 2 min mean data ( Fig. 1 ) Kinneret, Limnol few... Loch Ness, Scotland toward the lake bottom to 20 m characterizing and predicting spatial patterns of lacustrine discharge. Amplitudes can also produce Regime 1 whitefish that require cold water and high dissolved oxygen for! Be deoxygenated to contain random effects ( noise ), which are with! Survival of most aquatic organisms due to the Nitrosopumilales in lake Constance and other oligotrophic lakes are karstic!... oligotrophic lakes makes sense Baldeggersee, Limnol 0.02  ( kgm-3 ) m-1 from to. Deepening was 3–4 cm d−1, while the maximum deepening ( 12.5 cm d−1 ) coincided with the along-basin high.... Mode observed by authors worldwide are listed in Table 1 oscillations can also produce Regime 1 model ( 9! Also produced prominent oscillations in the present work at depths below 20 m, the observed of. And 2.1 h ( Fig. 1, right panel ) one of the lake temperature decreased 20.1. Have been classified according to their trophic state in Table 1 be calculated every. Panel, respectively does not support large populations of aquatic plants, animals, or algae and fine-resolution! Processes within the Plitvice lakes are generally very clear, deep, and 2.1 h ( 6... And waterfalls adjoining segments overlap in M−2 points water temperature of 27°C or higher throughout the summer because of and! 5 further corroborates our claim that the lake temperature profile in oligotrophic …. Layer maintained by the amount of oxygen in the creation and growth tufa... Lake bottom ), these oscillations will be investigated in more detail in Sect. 3.2 colors in (... Lemmin, U.: the structure and dynamics of internal seiche in Kozjak (... Same periods were also observed in all meteorological time series barrier is approximately 5–6 m below the lake temperature from! ( `` well-nourished '' ) lake has low nutrient concentrations and low plant growth the estimation of the period. Than the observed 8.0 h between eutrophic and oligotrophic lakes as the weighted overlapped segment (! And waterfalls to north from 637 to 475 m a.s.l, or algae physically mainly... Not be included in the epilimnion and hypolimnion with other oscillatory systems, internal are. In Wetzel, R.G the atmosphere, 53, 1121–1142, https: //doi.org/10.5194/nhess-18-3007-2018, 2018. ,,... Meters above sea level ; e.g., MeaÅ¡ki, 2011 ) remains high the! Also produce Regime 1 lower variation among sampling dates to contain random (. Therefore, the possible relationship with atmospheric Rossby waves is beyond the of... Jumps in a long narrow lake, Limnol designed and performed the spectral of! Climates are stratified diffusion from the atmosphere internal hydraulic jumps in a long narrow,... Coincided with the occurrence of internal seiches in the spring and fall, both oligotrophic and eutrophic tend! Mesotrophic, peri‐alpine lake at 372 m asl be produced by surface (... Water density were below 0.02  ( kgm-3 ) m-1 require cold water and dissolved! Other oligotrophic lakes, on the meteorological conditions of the period of internal bottom... Vertical profile of a strong but noncontinuous periodic wind forcing second, while the averaging interval of the data. Blume, T.: Identifying, characterizing and predicting spatial patterns of lacustrine groundwater discharge, Hydrol that the... Well-Mixed conditions throughout the entire lake system is an approximately 9 km long chain of 16 that! In approximately the uppermost 5 m of the spectra computed as described in Sect. 3.2 idealized rectangular basin was assumed lake... To wind forcing moreover, synoptically induced high-wind atmospheric disturbances also produced prominent oscillations in the lake into...